BS6 Norms: Complete Details Of Bharat Stage 6 Emission Standard

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By - Sarika Tyagi
March 13, 2023

In a world where the very air we breathe is being increasingly polluted, it has become more imperative than ever to adopt measures that can mitigate the impact of our actions on the environment. Enter the BS6 norms – a set of regulations that promise to revolutionise the way we think about emissions and fuel efficiency in the automotive industry. 

With its stringent standards and cutting-edge technology, the BS6 norms are set to usher in a new era of clean and sustainable transportation. In this blog, we will delve into the complete details of the BS6 emission standard, including its phases, and regulation compliance. We will also answer some of the most asked questions about the BS6 norms in detail.

What Are BS6 Emission Norms?

The BS6 (Bharat Stage 6) norms are emission standards mandated by the Government of India for vehicles sold in India. These standards aim to regulate the amount of pollutants emitted by vehicles powered by petrol and diesel engines. The BS6 norms were implemented in India from April 1, 2020, and replaced the previous BS4 norms.

Under the BS6 norms, the permissible levels of pollutants such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter are much lower than those of the previous BS4 norms. This has led to the development of new engine technologies and exhaust systems that are more efficient and cleaner.

BS6 Norms Phase 1

The BS6 (Bharat Stage 6) norms were implemented in India in two phases, with Phase 1 coming into effect on April 1, 2020. This phase brought about significant reductions in the permissible limits of pollutants such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter as compared to the previous BS4 norms. For instance, the nitrogen oxide limit for diesel engines was reduced by a remarkable 70% from the previous standard.

Automakers had to introduce advanced engine technologies and exhaust after-treatment systems like selective catalytic reduction, diesel particulate filters, and enhanced fuel injection systems to comply with these new norms. These technologies were crucial in reducing vehicle emissions and improving fuel efficiency.

The implementation of BS6 Phase 1 had a notable impact on the Indian automobile industry, with many automakers investing heavily in upgrading their production facilities and developing new engines and exhaust systems to meet the new standards. While this led to an increase in the cost of vehicles, it was ultimately necessary to pass on these expenses to the consumers.

BS6 Norms Phase 2: Real Driving Emission

Phase 2 of the BS6 norms, which came into effect on April 1, 2023, focuses on Real Driving Emission (RDE) testing.

RDE testing is emission testing that measures the pollutants emitted by a vehicle while driving on the road under real-world conditions. Unlike laboratory testing, RDE testing provides a more accurate assessment of a vehicle’s emissions in real-world driving scenarios.

Under the BS6 Phase 2 norms, all new vehicles must undergo RDE testing to obtain certification. The RDE testing will be conducted on public roads, and the vehicles will be equipped with portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) to measure their emissions in real-time.

The RDE test will measure emissions of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter (PM). The limits for these pollutants have been set by the government and are much lower than the limits prescribed under the previous BS4 norms.

Implementing BS6 Phase 2 norms with RDE testing significantly reduces vehicular emissions and improves air quality in India. This move will encourage automobile manufacturers to develop and produce more fuel-efficient vehicles that emit fewer pollutants.

However, implementing BS6 Phase 2 norms also poses some challenges for automobile manufacturers. The RDE testing process is more complex and expensive than laboratory testing, requiring significant investments in testing equipment and infrastructure. Moreover, complying with the lower emission limits can be challenging for manufacturers, as it may require them to use new technologies and redesign their engines.

BS6 Regulation Compliance

Compliance with BS6 regulations is mandatory for all new vehicles sold in India, and non-compliance can result in heavy penalties and fines. To comply with the regulations, automobile manufacturers have had to make significant investments in research and development to redesign engines, exhaust systems, and other components to meet the new emission norms.

The implementation of BS6 regulations has also led to a shift in the type of fuel used in vehicles. BS6 fuel has a lower sulphur content than BS4 fuel, and it is also a cleaner fuel that produces fewer emissions. The transition to BS6 fuel has been smooth, with most oil companies offering BS6 fuel across the country.

To ensure compliance with the regulations, the government has set up a testing infrastructure that includes laboratories and testing facilities that can test vehicles for emissions compliance. The government has also set up an online system for manufacturers to register and obtain certification for their vehicles before they are sold in the market.

The implementation of BS6 regulations has not been without challenges. The cost of compliance has been significant, which has led to an increase in the price of vehicles. The pandemic has also added to the challenges of compliance, with some manufacturers facing production delays and supply chain disruptions.

BS6 Norms In India Summary

In conclusion, the implementation of BS6 regulations in India has been a significant step towards reducing vehicular emissions and improving air quality. Compliance with these regulations is mandatory for all new vehicles sold in India and requires significant investments in research and development, as well as changes to the technology used in automobiles. 

While compliance with the regulations has presented some challenges for the Indian automobile industry, it has also encouraged manufacturers to develop and produce cleaner and more efficient vehicles. 

The successful implementation of BS6 regulations will require ongoing cooperation between the government, manufacturers, and consumers to ensure that compliance is maintained, and the benefits of the regulations are realized. Ultimately, the shift towards cleaner and more sustainable transportation is essential for creating a better future for all.

FAQs

What will happen after BS6 Norms?

The journey towards cleaner and more sustainable transportation is far from over, and the next step in this journey is the implementation of Phase 2 of the BS6 norms. Phase 2 of the BS6 norms, which is scheduled to come into effect in April 2023, will bring even more stringent emissions standards for vehicles. The norms will require a reduction in emissions of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides, which are major contributors to air pollution.

Another area where the Indian automobile industry is likely to focus in the future is the development of more fuel-efficient vehicles. 

Why does BS6 give less mileage?

BS6 is a more stringent emissions norm requiring vehicles to meet lower emissions limits than the previous BS4 norm. Additionally, using exhaust after-treatment systems, such as SCR and DPF, requires a certain amount of energy to operate, further reducing fuel efficiency.

Another reason for reduced fuel efficiency in BS6 engines is the requirement for higher-quality fuel. BS6 engines require ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel with a sulphur content of less than 10 ppm. While this fuel is better for the environment, it has lower energy content than higher sulphur fuels, which means that more fuel is required to produce the same amount of power.

What are the problems with BS6?

One of the main challenges of BS6 is the increased cost of compliance. To meet the stringent emission norms, automobile manufacturers have had to invest heavily in research and development, redesigning engines, and other components.

Another major issue that has come to light is DPF clogging. This occurs when the filter becomes saturated with particulate matter and is unable to effectively filter out any more emissions. When this happens, the filter needs to be cleaned or replaced, which can be a costly and time-consuming process. However, this has been only seen in BS6 diesel cars.

Is BS6 Emission Norms Same As The Euro 6?

BS6 emission norms are broadly similar to the Euro 6 emission standards, which are in effect in the European Union (EU) and some other countries. Both the BS6 and Euro 6 standards aim to reduce harmful emissions from vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbons (HC).

However, there are some minor differences between the BS6 and Euro 6 standards in terms of the specific limits for each pollutant. For example, the BS6 norms have slightly stricter limits for NOx emissions compared to Euro 6, while Euro 6 has slightly stricter limits for PM and HC emissions.

What Will Be the Impact Of BS6 On The Cost?

The implementation of BS6 norms in India has resulted in an increase in the cost of vehicles. The BS6 norms require significant changes to the engine and exhaust systems of vehicles to meet the more stringent emissions limits, which has led to an increase in the cost of manufacturing vehicles.

To comply with the BS6 norms, automobile manufacturers have had to invest heavily in research and development, redesigning engines, and other components. These costs are often passed on to consumers, resulting in higher prices for BS6-compliant vehicles. It is estimated that the cost of BS6-compliant vehicles is around 10-15% higher than their BS4 counterparts.

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