ADAS Full Form: A Guide to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

The ADAS full form is Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. It’s a suite of electronic functions designed to improve safety of the driver, passenger, and pedestrian. Read to know how ADAS can revolutionize the cars we purchase and drive.
ADAS Full Form
By - Patrick Nazareth
January 18, 2023

ADAS full form stands for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. It’s a suite of electronic functions designed to improve safety of the driver, the passenger and the pedestrian. The aim is to first minimise and then altogether eliminate accidents on the road.

A simple sensor that beeps near an object, or a car that allows hands off parking, are all levels of ADAS, that are currently taking on some of the drivers’ responsibilities. This is leading to what one hopes is a completely autonomous car which requires no driver input whatsoever.

By the time you’re through with this article, you’ll probably want to check out our blog on the best ADAS cars in India.

How Does ADAS Work?

ADAS working
ADAS Sensors <br><em> Image courtesy: Robotics and Automation News</em>

We put an array of advanced electronic sensors in the vehicles that first supplement the drivers eyes, ears and inputs while ultimately taking over his duties. ADAS cars come equipped with RADAR, SONAR, LiDAR and Geo location satellites to do everything for you. An onboard computer filters all information from these sources in the blink of an eye and acts decisively compared to a human who might take crucial milliseconds too long to react, leading to an avoidable accident.

Passive ADAS Systems

These types of ADAS merely inform the driver of potential dangers in time to avoid an accident. 

Common Passive ADAS Systems:

  • ABS (Anti-Lock Braking systems): Keeps car from skidding or turning when emergency braking is applied.
  • ESC (Electronic Stability Control): Helps the driver avoid under or over-steering especially during unexpected driving conditions.
  • TCS (Traction Control system): Incorporates aspects of above options assisting the driver in maintaining adequate traction when negotiating turns and curves.
  • Back Up Camera: Allows driver visibility when parking or reversing.
  • LDW (Lane Departure Warning): Alerts driver if car veers from its lane.
  • FCW (Forward Collision warning): Alerts driver to brake to avoid a collision.
  • Blind Spot Detection: Warns driver if a car or pedestrian is in their blind spot.
  • Parking assistance: Warns driver of proximity to an object at low speeds especially while parking.

Active ADAS Systems

The car takes over control from the driver intervening directly in the control of the vehicle should the on board computer deem that necessary.

Common Active ADAS Systems

  • Automatic Emergency Braking: Automatically applies brakes to avoid hitting objects like other cars or pedestrians in direct line of travel.
  • Emergency Steering: Takes control and steers the car to achieve above objective.
  • Adaptive Cruise Control: Adjusts speed and distance to match the vehicle ahead.
  • Traffic Jam Assist: Combination of Adaptive Cruise Control and Lane Keeping Assist to make a car semi-automated during stop-go traffic conditions.
  • Self Parking: Parks car while driver has hands off steering wheel.

Types of ADAS

Types of ADAS
Types of ADAS <br><em>Source: Robotics and Automation News</em>

We’ve grouped the different types of ADAS available in terms of the functions they perform to give you a convenient reference guide.

  1. Collision Warnings

Blind Spot Warning

Forward Collision Warning

Lane Departure Warning

Alerts drivers of a vehicle in their blind spot

Detects and warns  driver of a potential collision with a vehicle ahead. 

Alerts driver if the vehicle drifts out of driving lane.

Parking Collision Warning

Rear Cross Traffic Warning

Detects obstructions near  vehicle during parking or reversing manoeuvres.

Detects vehicles approaching from the side and rear of  vehicle while travelling in reverse, and alerts  driver.

  1. Collision Interventions

Automatic Emergency Braking

Automatic emergency Steering

Reverse Automatic Braking

Detects  potential collision with obstacles ahead; provides forward collision warning and automatically applies  brakes to avoid or lessen  severity of impact. 

Senses potential collision and assumes  control of the steering to steer clear of or mitigate shock of the collision..

Detects potential collision while travelling in reverse and automatically applies brakes to circumvent or reduce the force of the crash.

  1. Driving Control Assistance

Adaptive Cruise Control

Active Driving Assistance

Lane Keeping Assistance

Helps driver with acceleration and/or braking to maintain a prescribed distance between it and a vehicle in front. 

Helps driver with car acceleration, braking, and steering. 

Helps driver with steering in order  for vehicle to stay within designated lane.

  1. Parking Assistance

Active Parking Assistance

Remote Parking  Assistance

Trailer Assistance

Controls steering, and potentially braking and acceleration while parking.

Parks vehicle without driver being physically present inside vehicle. Automatically controls acceleration, braking, steering, and shifting.

Assists driver with visual guidance while backing towards a trailer or during backing manoeuvres with a trailer attached. 

  1. Other driver assistance systems

Advanced Forward Lighting Systems

Back Up Camera

Brake Assist

Makes headlights automatically adapt to changing driving conditions by ensuring they follow and illuminate vehicle’s travel path; switches from high to low beam as required by traffic conditions, or shining light at 90 degrees in either direction at an intersection.

Provides a view of the area behind the vehicle when in reverse. 

Constantly monitors brake pedal pressure and automatically senses when the driver needs emergency braking. It then boosts brake pressure levels well beyond those of the driver and more quickly at that to shorten braking distance bringing the car to a halt much sooner.

Driver Monitoring

Electronic Stability Control

Heads-Up Display

Keeps monitoring drivers to check their level of alertness and focus while driving. 

Automatically brakes one or more wheels for short periods of time, and/or reduces engine power to keep vehicle moving in the intended direction when it swerves to avoid an obstacle.

Projects an image of vehicle data and/or navigational information into driver's forward line of sight.

Night Vision

Roll Stability Control

Speed Alert

Boosts driver’s vision at night by projecting enhanced images on the instrument cluster or heads-up display.

Limits vehicle roll by braking one or more wheels and reducing engine power in extreme cornering or evasive manoeuvres.

Acts as a reminder of the current speed and/or functions as an alert for the drivers when they break the prescribed speed limit.

Surround View Camera

Tyre Pressure Monitors

Traction Control

Uses cameras located around vehicles to present a 360 degree view of the car’s surrounding areas.

Monitors air pressure of all wheels, and alerts driver when a tyre’s pressure has dropped below a safe level.

Monitors wheel speed and limits wheel spin when accelerating by braking and/or reducing engine power to the drive wheels.

Levels of ADAS

ADAS Levels
ADAS Levels <br><em>Image courtesy: The Engineer&#8217;s Post (Youtube)</em>

The US transport authority has broadly divided ADAS into six levels viz:     

Level

Title

Description

0

No autonomy

The driver is totally in command of the vehicle which may have systems like ABS installed.

1

Driver Assistance

May have a single system like passive or adaptive cruise control to assist driver.      

2

Partial driving automation

The onboard computer can steer, accelerate and brake without human intervention but does require driver’s presence behind the wheel.

3

Conditional driving Automation

The onboard computer can assess traffic conditions and the like, and can independently act on them, but still requires human presence in the driving seat.

4

High driving automation

Self driving vehicles that can operate within certain geographical parameters or on certain routes within speed limits.

5

Full driving automation

A vehicle without any steering wheel or brakes requiring no input from a physical driver whatsoever. Not yet available to the general public.

What are the Advantages of ADAS?

ADAS prevents or at the very least minimises accidents on the road. This not only results in the improved safety of everyone on the road but also contributes to an overall reduction in your vehicle’s running costs. That’s because your car will spend less time in the garage for denting, painting and the like, thus saving you money.

Also, if something were to happen, the onboard video and data systems could be shown to police authorities or insurance people saving you legal hassles and insurance costs.

What are the Disadvantages of ADAS?

ADAS works on a system of validation and verification. To that extent it is largely dependent on correct road signages and lane markings, both of which are far from adequate on Indian roads. 

The driver may also become far too reliant on these systems which, being man made, could suffer the occasional failure and lead to mishaps. Additionally, the driver could disable these systems if he/she feels it interferes with driving, for example, the ADAS could mistake a car in the adjoining lane as coming towards it and brake, leading to safety issues.

The maintenance and repair of ADAS enabled vehicles are expensive which may result in higher insurance costs.

ADAS Full Form Summary

ADAS is probably the single most important sector of automobile research today. This is because as technology enables us to make innovations smaller, more efficient, more reliable and affordable, it addresses a concern i.e. driver error which accounts for 90% of road accidents.

ADAS is affecting the cars we purchase and drive, making them safer and smarter.

FAQs About ADAS Full Form

What is an ADAS system on a car?

 ADAS is basically a complex network of sensors and cameras that are connected to a central onboard computer that assist in driving.

Which car has ADAS in India?

MG introduced these features to India. Mahindra, Hyundai and other car manufacturers are introducing them in their newer models. Perhaps you would like to check out our article on Best ADAS cars in India.

Q. How does an ADAS camera work?

The ADAS camera scans all the sides and surrounding areas of the car giving visual feedback to the driver thus assisting in the safe driving of the same.

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